Derived Verbs in Ateso
Use of derived verbs:
In English, the idea of action to for, away from, etc. is expressed by means of prepositions:
“We go to school.” “Put it on the table.”
“Do it for me.” “Take it away.”
Ateso expresses these ideas by altering the form of the verb itself. This book deals only with four types of derived verbs: other types will be listed in Appendix I.
Formation of derived verbs:
This alteration consists of adding one of three suffixes, –un, –ar (-or) and –akin (-okin), to the root, thereby forming a new verb which can be conjugated throughout. These three forms will be termed “motion towards “motion away” and “action for”:
e.g. aicak (ko)—to throw
acakun (ko)—to throw (towards the speaker)
acakar (ko)—to throw (out or away from the speaker)
acakakin (ko)—to throw (for the speaker)
Note that although the infinitive in the root verb has the prefix ai-, the infinitive prefix in the derived verbs is a- in accordance with the rule given in Chapter 7 Possessives.
(i) “Motion towards” verbs: (a) The suffix –un shows that the action of the verb is directed towards the speaker:
e.g. alomun (to come in) when the speaker himself is in the room.
(b) –un occasionally indicates the acquisition of a quality of benefit to the speaker:
e.g. angaleu —to be healthy
angaleun—to become healthy
ejok — good
ejokun — to become good (to our benefit)
(ii) ” Motion away” verbs: (a) The suffix –ar (or –or after”close” vowel roots) shows that the action is directed away from the speaker:
e.g. alomar — to go out, when the speaker is in the room
abukor —-to pour away
- –ar also indicates the acquisition of a quality of no direct benefit to the speaker:
e.g. ejok ngesi -he is good.
Ejokiar ngesi –if he becomes good (but no benefit to us).
(iii) ” Action for” verbs: (a) The suffix –akin (or –okin after close vowel roots) shows that the action is done for someone.
e.g. aiwadikakin — to write for someone, or to someone
adukokin -to build for someone (hence: to (hence: to marry)
When a vowel precedes, the prepositional ending –akin or –okin usually becomes –ikin:
e.g. ajaikin — to be at
(b) This form also expresses place on something, or movement on to something:
e.g. acakakin–throw down (on the ground)
(iv) Causative verbs: There is a fourth type of derived verb known as “causative”. This derived verb expresses the idea of causing the action of the verb. E.g. “to heal” gives a causative form “to cause to heal” and hence “to cure”. Causative verbs are formed by adding a syllable immediately in front of the root.
The syllable so added is ta, te, ti, to or tu, the vowel corresponding to the vowel of the root of the verb.
E.g. aiduk (ko)–to build aituduk (ki)–to cause to build
ailel (ko)—to be glad aitelel (ki) -to please
ainyam (ko) — to eat aitanyam (ki) — to feed
It should be noted that causative verbs formed in this way always belong to the ki class, whatever the class of the root verb.
Roots beginning with k and some other verbs have ai instead of ta, te, ti etc. aikam (ki)— to catch aisikam (ki)—to observe
(to cause to catch)
aimik (ki) — to refuse aisimik (ki)–to prohibit
In roots containing w, the w is moved to a position inside the
Aswam (kl) — to work aitwasam (ki) — to cause to work
Agwel (ko) – to buy aitwegel (ki) – to couse to buy, to sell
Derived verbs as well as simple verbs can have causative forms:
- aikam (ki) – to chatch aisiikam (ki) — to cause to catch
aikamun (ki) — to catch aisikamun(ki) –to cause to catch (for oneself)
Conjugation of derived verbs:
With the exception of the subjunctive imperative form, which aupplies the past (abu) tense, the conjugation of derived verbs is regular. Many derived verbs have already been introduced in the vocabularies and used in the exercises.
The subjunctive/imperative is formed as follows:
(a) “Action towards” verbs in –un drop the final –n in the singular; in the plural –n is also dropped but –tu added.
(b) “Action away” verbs in –or or –ar drop the final –r in the singular; in the plural the –r is also dropped but –s is added.
(c) “Action for” verbs in –akin or –okin drop the final –in in the singular; in the plural the –in is also dropped but -is is added.
The full subjunctive/imperative is therefore as follows:
ABONGUN ABONGOR ABONGOKIN
Kaboņgu Kabongo Kabongok
Koboņgu Kobongo Kobongok
Keboņgu Kebongo Kebongok
Kiboņgu Kibongo Kibongok
Kobongutu Kobongosi Kobongokisi
Kabongutu Kabongosi Kabongokisi
Kebongutu Kebongosi Kebongokis
Aibuk (Ko)–To Pour
Aiwadik (Ki) — To Write
Aljen (Ko) — To Know
Ayale (Ko) — To Be Healthy
Agwel (Ko) — To Buy
Aitep (Ko) — To Rain
Adisiar (Ko) — To Grow Less
–Lim (Ko)* — Tell
–Lom (Ko)* — Come out
–Todu (Ki)* — Show
–Bon (Ko)* — Return
Akiring (Singular Only) — Meat
Edou (Idoon) — Rain Cloud, Rain
Ebe—That (As In The Sentence: “We Know That It Will Rain”)
- To pour away; to return here; to go out; to become healthy; to return there; to tell someone; to come in; to become big.
- To heal; to use (to cause to do); to dress; to sell; to lessen; to increase.
- Bring (plural) some milk quickly.
- He wants this girl to get him some meat.
- You liked all the stories which my father told you.
- Do not (plural) go out. It is still raining.
- Come here and let me tell you a story.
- He knew his father was getting better.
- We showed them our house and they showed us
- If you work for me for three days, you can use