Habitual and Not Yet Tenses
Use of habitual tense
Iteso wear clothes — Enapitos Iteso igoen or enapenenete Iteso igoen. In English the Ateso version may mean ‘Iteso are wearing clothes’ or ‘Iteso always wear clothes’. This difference in meaning can in Ateso be expressed by a different tense, the habitual tense. This tense is used to denote the habit or
custom of a person or people.
Formation of the habitual tense
The habitual tense is formed by adding the ending -oi to the perfect (-it) tense in the singular and first person plural and the ending -s in the second and third
- Alip (ki) — to ask, to beg
- Elipitoi —- I have a habbit of begging
- Ailipitoi —-The habbit of begging
- Ilipitoi — he’s a habitual begger
- Kilipitoi — we were habitually begging
- Ilipitos — you are pertually begging or asking
- Ilipitos – they are perpetually begging
This tense is commonly used with repetitive verbs (see appendix 1) in both ko and ki classes. Its use with simple verbs is extremely limited. Verbs in the habitual tense rarely take an object.
“Not yet”: The Ateso words eringa and eroko mean “not yet” or “still”. When used to mean “still” they are followed by indicative tenses;
Eroko edou etepi — It is still raining
Eringa ejai ne — He is still here
When used to mean “not yet” they are followed by a special tense. Formation of “not yet” tense: The “not yet” tense is formed by adding the prefix ke– in ko class verbs and ki– in ki class verbs to the root, and by adding the suffix –o after roots in close vowels and -a after roots in open vowels or a.
AIDUK (ko) — to build AILIP (ki) — to ask
Keduko — when it is built Kilipa —- when asked
The initial k is often dropped.
Eroko kebuno — He has not yet come.
Eringa isio keloto — We have not yet gone
Mam is occassionally used with the ”not yet” tense:
e.g. Eriko ebuno — She/he has not yet come
But if the particle ber is used with mam the indicative tenses must be used:
e.g. mam ber ebunit —- She/he has not yet come
Use of the ”not yet” tense: The ”not yet” tense is used to translate ”before” in
such phrases such as ”he cried before he had boarded the bus”.
E.g. Eringa ngesi keduko etogo(direct translation Before he built the house”) — He has not yet built a house
Eroko ngesi kebuno (direct translation ”Before he come” )— He has not yet come.
The time expressed by ”not yet” tense depends on the main clause:
E.g. Abu eong kadau ainyam eroko Oselle kebuno — I had finished eating before Oselle came.
Adauni eong ainyam eringa Oselle kebuno — I will have finished eating before Oselle comes.
The uses of the ”dependent perfect” or ”when” tense are described. The ”when” tense is used to translate ”after” in the same way as”not yet” tense is used to translate ”before”. As with the ”not yet” tense the time expressed by the ”when” tense depends on the main clause;
E.g. Alosi Ngariam kabongu komanikor —- I am going to Ngariam whan I get back from the garden.
Abu kalot Kapelebyong kabongu komanikor –— I went to Kapelebyong when I returned from the garden.
Aingit (ki) – To ask
Anyaraun (ko) – To call
Alimokin (ko) – To tell
Aiirar (ki) – To hear
Ainap (ko) – To wear
Awaragan(awaragasia) – Story (stories) / Folklore(folklores)
Emukule (Imukulen) – Skin(skins)/ Hide(Hides)
Naarai – Because